XML's near ubiquity and web-centric design ensures broad accessibility and understandability. I do not buy the result. A complex piece of software consists of simple parts and simple relations between those parts; the programmer's task is to state those parts and those relationships, in whatever order is best for human comprehension not in some rigidly determined order like top-down or bottom-up." Literate programming [19] is a possible solution to the software comprehension problem de­ scribed above. The technique involves writing documentation and program code in a single source document, psychologically arranged for comprehension by humans rather than comput­ ers. Zed indicates in his essay that he supports literate programming, or at least it's goals. [8], Knuth also claims that Literate Programming can lead to easy porting of software to multiple environments, and even cites the implementation of TeX as an example.[11]. This idea has been implemented in a number of modern literate programming tools (Table 1). : Literate programming is a method to integrate programs with their documentation. Provides an interactive programming environment that evaluates each statement and displays live results as the code is edited. It does not have the extensibility of, Respects indentation which makes usable for the languages like. But as time went on, I've become extremely pleased with the name, because I think that a complex piece of software is, indeed, best regarded as a web that has been delicately pieced together from simple materials. ", Program as a web—macros are not just section names, Order of human logic, not that of the compiler, "I had the feeling that top-down and bottom-up were opposing methodologies: one more suitable for program exposition and the other more suitable for program creation. Literate Programming tools can be quite simple if they're focused on modern, high-level object-oriented (or functional) programming languages. an editor for literate programming. Power will soon belong to those who can master a variety of expressive human-machine interactions. Already, various thinkers about the future have proposed a number of candidates forthe designation "twenty-first-century literacy." By Marc Prensky. Install and use. “It also makes the program more difficult to change because prose tends to be more tightly interconnected than code. Aside from publishing academic papers on new notebook systems (summarized in Section IV), researchers have also I think lit offers some compelling features. It uses "noweb" markup for the literate source files. Aims to modernize and scale it with "folding HTML" and "virtual views" on code. These macros are similar to the algorithms in pseudocode typically used in teaching computer science. [5] While the first generation of literate programming tools were computer language-specific, the later ones are language-agnostic and exist above the programming languages. —, If one remembers that the first version of the tool was called WEB, the amusing literary reference hidden by Knuth in these names becomes obvious: "Oh, what a tangled web we weave when first we practise to deceive" –, "A Multi-Language Computing Environment for Literate Programming and Reproducible Research", https://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/intro.html, https://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/languages.html#langs, https://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/intro.html#literate-programming, Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology, "Markup Formatting Reference: Markup Overview", "Sweave, Part I: Mixing R and LaTeX: A short introduction to the Sweave file format and corresponding R functions", "The Joy of Sweave – A Beginner's Guide to Reproducible Research with Sweave", "knitr: A General-Purpose Tool for Dynamic Report Generation in R", "Web 68: Literate programming with Algol 68", "Weaving a Program: Literate Programming in WEB", "Literate Programming – Issues and Problems", Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Literate_programming&oldid=996413715, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Literate programming uses modern, common language to create scripts. These arbitrary explanatory phrases become precise new operators, created on the fly by the programmer, forming a meta-language on top of the underlying programming language. Literate programming encourages meaningful documentation and the inclusion of details that are usually omitted in source code such as the description of algorithms, design decisions, and implementation strategy. TANGLE is able to scramble everything up into the arrangement that a PASCAL compiler demands. Knuth has shown us here how to program intelligibly, but not wisely. Much of the mindset of modern programming is that your code should be its own documentation. McIlroy concluded:[14]. Jul 16, 2015 by Ron Isaac EducationViews Contributor. See the generated documentation as HTML. [1], In a noweb literate program besides the free order of their exposition, the chunks behind macros, once introduced with "<<...>>=", can be grown later in any place in the file by simply writing "<>=" and adding more content to it, as the following snippet illustrates ("plus" is added by the document formatter for readability, and is not in the code). The meta-language capabilities of literate programming are also claimed to facilitate thinking, giving a higher "bird's eye view" of the code and increasing the number of concepts the mind can successfully retain and process. The visual appearance of the software source code would be … Again, I did this in the interests of simplicity, because I noticed that most applications of multiple parameters could in fact be reduced to the one-parameter case. 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